##### In Physics

A variety of significant new discoveries are being made in physics. These discoveries could have implications for our understanding of the universe and our everyday lives.

These developments might not be as revolutionary as those that led to the break with the classical physics system however, they will have long-term consequences. They could lead to better understanding and prediction of the future of the universe or help us make sense of things previously unimaginable.

## Magnetism and electricity

Magnetism and electricity are two of the most significant forces in the universe. They play an important role in radio waves, microwaves, visible light, X-rays and gamma rays.

Answer 1: Electromagnetic force arises from the attraction and repulsion of electrically charged particles. Similar charges repel, while opposite charges attract.

For instance in a hydrogen atom, the nucleus’ proton is charged with 1.60e-19 Coulombs of positive electric charge, while an electron moving around it has a negative charge of -1.60e-19 Coulombs.

When electrons spin around the nucleus creating magnetic fields. This magnetic field allows objects to attract and repel, as is seen by a compasses needle.

## Vibrations

In the field of physics, vibration can be the term used to describe any periodic back-and-forth motion of particles in an elastic medium or body. The motion can be free or forced.

If the system is not in equilibrium, it causes forced vibrations. They are common in nature.

An example of this is a pendulum, which is suspended by an elastic string from a fixed point. When the pendulum is removed away from its position, it vibrates.

Another great example of natural vibration is a mass suspended from a spring. It vibrates when it is pulled down and released. As you can see in the video below, when the mass is pulled to the left, it vibrates vertically and as it is pulled to the right, it vibrates horizontally.

## Waves

Waves are disturbances that travel in an oscillating or regular manner through matter. They can be found in everything from light to sound and the motion of subatomic particles such as electrons.

They can be classified into three categories: electromagnetic, mechanical and seismic. Each one has different properties.

Frequency (f) is the number of times you repeat a wave per unit time. Period (T) is the length of time for a wave to pass through the point.

Amplitude is the maximum displacement of a particle in an oscillation from its neutral position. More amplitude means more energy.

A wave can be either longitudinal or transverse and there are many kinds of them. Longitudinal waves are compressed, while transverse waves are transverse. Sound waves and water waves are examples of longitudinal waves.

## Optics

Optics is a field of physics that studies properties and behavior of light and the instruments we use to detect them. The field has been a major driver in the development of many technologies.

It also played a crucial role in the creation and application of new Physics. It was essential in the development of quantum mechanics theory in the early 20th century.

Today optics is one of the most active fields in modern physics. It also has a wide range of applications in industry, science and medical.

## Mathematical Methods

In the study of physical systems, mathematical techniques are necessary. They are also employed in engineering and other fields.

The evolution of the field of mathematical physics is largely attributed to the contributions of European mathematicians from the 18th and 19th centuries. They were Leonhard Euler, Daniel Bernoulli and Joseph-Louis Lagrange who formulated partial differential equations and variational calculus, and also potential theories.

The application of mathematical analysis to Physics has led to significant discoveries in a variety of areas, including celestial mechanics, hydrodynamics, continuum mechanics, elasticity theory fluid dynamics and thermodynamics magnetic, electrical and electromagnetic theories. It has also influenced other mathematical disciplines.